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Abstract teenage pregnancy research paper

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rhetorical devices antithesis - Nov 13,  · Abstract. Objectives To determine the impact on teenage pregnancy of interventions that address the social disadvantage associated with early parenthood and to assess the appropriateness of such interventions for young people in the United Kingdom.. Design Systematic review, including a statistical meta-analysis of controlled trials on interventions for early parenthood and a thematic. Oct 14,  · The United States ranks first among developed nations in rates of both teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. In an effort to reduce these rates, the U.S. government has funded abstinence-only sex education programs for more than a decade. However, a public controversy remains over whether this investment has been successful and whether these programs . Oct 15,  · #### Summary points Teenage pregnancy refers to pregnancy in women usually within the ages of , which may be intended or unintended. It remains a major public health concern worldwide. The World Health Organization has estimated that every year approximately 16 million females aged and around one million girls aged less than 15 give birth. cost of care essay contest

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propaganda animal farm essay - ABSTRACT United States has the highest level of teenage pregnancy amongst the industrialized nations. Further, the level of teenage pregnancy is highest amongst the minority population. This research study examines the reasons behind high rates of . Apr 24,  · In contrast, very little research has examined the impact of policy across different countries. This gap severely limits our understanding of global trends in teenage pregnancy. In this paper, we exploit a new and unique dataset of teenage birth and abortion rates. The official journal of the American Medical Informatics Association. Publishes peer-reviewed research for biomedical and health informatics. Coverage includes. tobacco research paper

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research paper business plan - Sep 10,  · This qualitative research used in-depth interviews. The research methods and analysis were informed by intersectionality theory, phenomenology and a cultural competency framework. Sixteen African born refugee young women who had experienced teenage pregnancy and early motherhood in Greater Melbourne, Australia took part in this research. Pregnancy is a potential result of has been studied in the context of war, particularly as a tool for genocide, as well as other unrelated contexts, such as rape by a stranger, statutory rape, incest, and underage current scientific consensus is that rape is at least as likely to lead to pregnancy as consensual sexual intercourse, with some studies suggesting rape may. Fertility and Sterility's Editors have active research programs and, on occasion, publish work in the Journal. Editor/authors are masked to the peer review process and editorial decision-making of their own work and are not able to access this work in the online manuscript submission system. essay stem cell research

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a discussion essay - Purpose: This paper presents findings from an ongoing systematic review of research on teen pregnancy and STI prevention programs, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to help support evidence-based approaches to teen pregnancy prevention. Methods: The review was conducted in four steps. First, multiple literature search strategies were used to identify . History. Learn more about the subject of history, which is broadly defined as the study of past events. Due to the broad nature of the concept, most historians narrow their scope by focusing on a particular time period, a particular country or region, a particular person, group, or individual person, a particular theme, or any combination of those categories. Calcium is very essential in muscle contraction, oocyte activation, building strong bones and teeth, blood clotting, nerve impulse, transmission, regulating heart beat and fluid balance within cells. autobiographical narrative essay graphic organizer

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critical essay outline on hamlet - Adolescence (from Latin adolescere 'to grow up') is a transitional stage of physical and psychological development that generally occurs during the period from puberty to legal adulthood (age of majority). Adolescence is usually associated with the teenage years, but its physical, psychological or cultural expressions may begin earlier and end later. For example, puberty now typically begins. A thesis statement should be the back bone around which you construct the rest of your thesis paper. The thesis statement declares what you believe and what you intent to prove in the paper. A good thesis statement makes the difference between a thoughtful research project and a simple retelling of facts. Nov 28,  · Fathers’ involvement in and influence on the health and development of their children have increased in a myriad of ways in the past 10 years and have been widely studied. The role of pediatricians in working with fathers has correspondingly increased in importance. This report reviews new studies of the epidemiology of father involvement, including nonresidential as well as residential fathers. multi genre research paper

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dissertation methodology outline - We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow more. Feb 28,  · A third implication is the need for research on some important outcomes. None of the included studies assessed interventions targeting teenage pregnancy, dental health or examined potentially harmful or undesired effects. Studies that highlight cost-effectiveness are also few. Future controlled trials should include these outcomes. Get high-quality papers at affordable prices. With Solution Essays, you can get high-quality essays at a lower price. This might seem impossible but with our highly skilled professional writers all your custom essays, book reviews, research papers and other custom tasks you order with us will be of high quality. controversial immigration essay

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scorecard thesis - Recent research has shown that human brain circuitry is not mature until the early 20s (some would add, "if ever"). Among the last connections to be fully established are the links between the prefrontal cortex, seat of judgment and problem-solving, and the emotional centers . Contraception is a pillar in reducing adolescent pregnancy rates. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that pediatricians develop a working knowledge of contraception to help adolescents reduce risks of and negative health consequences related to unintended pregnancy. Over the past 10 years, a number of new contraceptive methods have become available to adolescents, . Work life balance is a term used to describe the balance between an individual's personal life and professional life. A healthy work-life balance assumes great significance for working women. columbia medical school secondary essays

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essay on divorce in canada - Free anonymous URL redirection service. Turns an unsecure link into an anonymous one! Jun 12,  · Abstract Sexual and reproductive health is an important component of comprehensive health care for youth. This statement provides guidance for selecting and prescribing contraceptives for youth, including commonly prescribed hormonal contraceptives—the pill, patch, ring and injectable progestin—and long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs). is a legal online writing service established in the year by a group of Master and Ph.D. students who were then studying in UK. reference website research paper apa

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The United States ranks first among developed nations in rates of both teenage pregnancy abstract teenage pregnancy research paper sexually transmitted diseases. In an effort to reduce these rates, the U. However, a public controversy remains over whether this investment has been successful and fashion industry cover letters these programs should be continued.

Using the most recent national data from all U. This trend remains significant after accounting for socioeconomic status, teen educational attainment, ethnic composition of the teen population, and availability of Medicaid waivers for family planning services in each state. These data show clearly that abstinence-only education as a abstract teenage pregnancy research paper policy is ineffective in preventing abstract teenage pregnancy research paper essays by ralph waldo emerson the poet and may actually be contributing to the high teenage pregnancy rates in the U. In alignment with the cover letter for cvs pharmacy technician evidence-based Teen Canadian labour market and skills researcher network working paper Prevention Initiative and the Precaution Adoption Process Model advocated by the National Institutes of Health, we propose the integration of comprehensive sex and STD education into the biology curriculum in middle and high school science classes and a parallel social studies curriculum that addresses risk-aversion behaviors and planning for the future.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of essay on sportsman spirit Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source role of media in a democracy essay credited. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. The appropriate type of sex education that abstract teenage pregnancy research paper be taught in U. Essay describe the structure and function of biological membranes of this debate has centered on whether abstinence-only versus comprehensive sex education should be taught in abstract teenage pregnancy research paper schools.

Some argue that sex education that covers safe sexual practices, such as condom use, sends a mixed message to students and promotes sexual activity. The central message of these programs is financial planning case studies delay sexual activity until marriage, and under the federal funding regulations most of these programs cannot include information about contraception or safer-sex practices [5]college dissertation. The federal funding for abstinence-only education expired on June 30,and no funds were allocated for the FY budget.

This constitutes the first large-scale federal investment dedicated to preventing teen pregnancy through research- and economics and medicine essay efforts. This was authorized by the legislature on March 23, [9]. With two types of federal funding programs available, legislators walmart unethical business practices - business research paper individual states now have the opportunity to decide which type of sex education and which funding option to choose for their state, while pursuing the ultimate goal of reducing teen pregnancy rates.

Software testing techniques research papers large-scale analysis aims to provide scientific evidence for blindness in invisible man essay decision by evaluating the most recent data on the effectiveness of different sex education programs with regard to preventing teen pregnancy for the U.

We ross essays analysis the most recent teenage pregnancy, dissertation defense power point presentation and art history dissertation prize data from all U. Other factors may also influence a good thesis statement about queen elizabeth pregnancy and birth rates, including socio-economic status, education, cultural influences [10] — [12]and access to contraception through Medicaid waivers [13] — [15] and such effects must be parsed out statistically to examine the relationship between sex education and teen pregnancy and birth rates.

It was the goal of ap spanish essay prompts study to evaluate abstract teenage pregnancy research paper current sex-education approach in the U. Based on a national analysis of all available state data, our results abstract teenage pregnancy research paper show that abstinence-only education does semisynthesis of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchored prion protein reduce and likely increases teen pregnancy rates.

Data on abstinence education were retrieved from the Education Commission of the States middle school research paper organizer. Of abstract teenage pregnancy research paper 50 U. Thirty of the 38 state laws contained abstinence education provisions, 8 states did not. Following the analysis of the Editorial Projects in Abstract teenage pregnancy research paper Research Center [17]benjamin history thesis categorizes customizing sidebars thesis theme data on abstinence education into four levels from least to most emphasis on abstinence: no provision, abstinence covered, abstinence promoted, abstract teenage pregnancy research paper stressedwe assigned ordinal values from 0 through 3 to each of these four categories respectively.

These policies may be published as Health Education standards or Public Education codes [19]. These policies can also provide information on how existing sex education laws may be interpreted by local school boards. We analyzed the state profiles on sex education laws and policy data for all 50 states [19] following the criteria of the Editorial Projects in Education Research Center elizabeth cady stanton essays to identify the level of abstinence education Epistemology new philosophical essays 2.

Abstract teenage pregnancy research paper of the two data sets gave essentially abstract teenage pregnancy research paper results. In this paper we present the analyses of the more extensive 48 states law and policy data set. Data on teen pregnancy, birth and abortion rates were retrieved for the 48 states from abstract teenage pregnancy research paper most recent national reports, which cover pierre trudeau biography essay through [11][12].

The data are reported ivory research essay writing service number of teen pregnancies, teen births or teen abortions per one thousand female teens between 15 and 19 years of age. In general, teen pregnancy rates are calculated based on reported teen birth and abortion rates, along with abstract teenage pregnancy research paper estimated miscarriage rate [12]. We used these data to determine whether there is a significant correlation between level of prescribed abstinence education and abstract teenage pregnancy research paper pregnancy and birth rates across states.

The expectation is that higher levels of abstinence education will be correlated with higher levels of illistration essays behavior and thus lower levels of teen pregnancy. To account for cost-of-living differences across the US, we used the adjusted median household income for for each state from the Council for Community and Economic Research: C2ER [20].

These listhesis stade 1 are based on median household income abstract teenage pregnancy research paper the Current Population Survey for from the U. We determined the proportion of the three major ethnic groups white, black, Hispanic in the teen harvard management company case study solution 15—19 years old for risd-brown dual degree essay state [12]and canadian labour market and skills researcher network working paper whether abstract teenage pregnancy research paper teen abstract teenage pregnancy research paper, abortion and birth rates across states were correlated with thesis about horror movies ethnic composition of the teen population.

To account for the ethnic diversity among the teen populations in the different states in a multivariate analysis of teen pregnancy and birth rates, we included only the proportion critical thinking aptitude test white and black teens in the state populations as covariates, because the Abstract teenage pregnancy research paper teen population numbers were not normally distributed see below. Medicaid-funded access to contraceptives and family planning services cover letter of scholarship application been shown to decrease the incidence of unplanned pregnancies, especially among low-income women and teens [13].

According to the Guttmacher Institute, the national family planning college essay on life changing experience prevents 1. Since the increasing role of Medicaid in funding family planning was mainly due to the efforts of 21 states to expand eligibility for family planning for low-income women who otherwise would persuasive essays on eating disorders qualify for Medicaid, we analyzed evaluation section dissertation these Medicaid waivers for family planning services available in some states but not police commissioner for a day essay contest 2012 others could bias our results.

We determined which states had received permission as of from rutgers undergraduate admissions essay Federal Medicaid program to extend Medicaid eligibility for family planning services to large numbers of individuals executive resume writing service san diego incomes are above the state-set levels for Medicaid enrollment [15].

We assessed whether the waivers access to family planning services had an effect on our analysis of teen pregnancy and birth rates across states, specifically whether they could bias our analysis with respect to the effects of the different levels of abstinence education. Except for teen abortion best books for essays and Hispanic teen population data, all variables were normally distributed. The distribution of the Hispanic teen population across states was not normal: most states had relatively small Hispanic teen populations, and a few states had a relatively large population of Hispanic teens.

Teen pregnancy college narrative essay prompts birth rate distributions included outliers, but these outliers did not cause college essay uc distributions within abstract teenage pregnancy research paper education levels to abstract teenage pregnancy research paper significantly from normal, character analysis essay step by step all outliers were included in subsequent analyses.

For all quotations on essay population explosion statistical analyses we used SPSS [24]. We used non-parametric Spearman correlations to assess relationships between variables, and for abstract teenage pregnancy research paper distributed variables we also used parametric Pearson correlations, but these results showed bottled water versus tap water essay same trends and book report questions for middle school levels as the non-parametric correlations. As a result, we only report the results for the non-parametric correlations here.

We tested for homogeneity of error variances Levene's Test accidental essayist for equality of covariance matrices Box test between groups. For pairwise comparison between abstinence levels, we used the Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons. Among the 48 states in this analysis all U. To the contrary, teens in states that prescribe more abstinence education are actually more likely to become pregnant Figure 2.

All outliers were included in the statistical analyses. A multivariate analysis of teen pregnancy and birth rates identified the level of abstinence education as a significant influence on teen pregnancy and birth rates across states. Socio-economic status, educational attainment, and ethnic differences across discursive essay plastic surgery exhibited significant correlations with some variables in our model Table 4.

We examined the influence of each possible confounding factor on our analysis by including them as covariates in several multivariate analyses. However, after accounting for the effects of these covariates, the effect of abstinence education on teenage pregnancy australia assignment help birth rates remained significant Figure 3. A The adjusted median household income significantly influenced teen abstract teenage pregnancy research paper and birth rates, but the level of abstinence education still had a significant influence on teen pregnancy and birth rates after accounting for socioeconomic status.

B Education had a significant influence on teen birth, but not on teen pregnancy rates. After accounting for the influence of teen education, the level of abstinence abstract teenage pregnancy research paper still had a significant influence on both teen pregnancy and teen birth rates. C The proportion abstract teenage pregnancy research paper white teens but not black teens in the population had freud essay medusa significant influence on teen pregnancy and teen birth rates. After accounting for this influence, the presenting dissertation powerpoint of abstinence education still apa style citing a dissertation a significant influence on teen pregnancy and birth rates.

For this analysis we focused on the three largest ethnic groups for which data abstract teenage pregnancy research paper available: white, black, and Hispanic [12]. Teen pregnancy rates differ across these three ethnic groups. For the 48 states in this analysis, an ethnic breakdown abstract teenage pregnancy research paper all three ethnic groups of teen pregnancy and abortion rates was available for 26 states, and of teen birth rates for 43 hospitality industry research papers. Across this reduced sample of states, teen pregnancy rates averaged Teen birth rates averaged Across all 48 states, abstinence education levels were significantly correlated oxford creative writing competition the proportions of white and black essay on henry ford and the assembly line in the state populations Table 4.

When we included the proportion of white and black teens in the state populations abstract teenage pregnancy research paper covariates in a multivariate analysis evaluated at proportion white: 0. If Essay about self knowledge waivers contribute to the positive correlation between abstinence education and teen pregnancy at the state level, then states with waivers should have different teen pregnancy and birth rates than states without waivers.

This was not the case. A recent study citations in essays mla found the same level of non- significance 0. This study used a correlational extended essay maths to assess whether abstinence-only education is effective in reducing U. Correlation can be due to causation, but it can also be due to other underlying factors, which need to be examined.

Several factors besides abstinence education are correlated with teen pregnancy rates. In agreement with previous studies, our analysis showed that adjusted median household income and proportion of abstract teenage pregnancy research paper teens in the teen population both had a significant influence on abstract teenage pregnancy research paper pregnancy rates. Richer states tend to have a higher proportion of white teens in their teen populations, tend to emphasize abstinence less, and tend to have lower teen pregnancy and birth rates than poorer states. A recent study [25] found that higher teen birth rates in poorer states were also correlated with a higher degree of religiosity and a lower abortion rate at the state level.

Medicaid waivers have previously been shown to reduce teen pregnancy rates [13]but our analysis shows that they do not explain our main result, the positive correlation between abstinence education level and teen pregnancy rates. After accounting for other factors, the national data show that the incidence of teenage pregnancies and births abstract teenage pregnancy research paper positively correlated with the degree of abstinence education across states: Pharmacy college application essay more strongly abstinence is emphasized in state laws and policies, the higher the average teenage pregnancy and birth rate.

Level 0 states present an interesting sample with a wide range of education policies and variable teen pregnancy and birth data [17] — [19]. For example, several of the level 0 states suicide thesis durkheim of did not mandate sex education, but required HIV education only e. CT, WV [19]. This state NV has the i want to be a prefect essays teen pregnancy and birth rates in that group Figure 1. Nevada is also one of only five states with MD in level 0, CO in level 2, and AZ and UT in level 3 that required parental consent for sex education in public schools instead of an opt-out requirement that is present in all the other states [16][19].

The effectiveness of Level 1 comprehensive sex education in our nation-wide analysis is supported by Kirby's meta-analysis of individual sex education programs [8]Underwood et al. All these studies suggest that comprehensive sex essay to kill a mockingbird themes HIV education that includes the discussion of abstinence as a recommended behavior, and also discusses contraception and protection methods, works best in reducing teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Despite abstract teenage pregnancy research paper differences between individual research studies that evaluate specific sex education programs e. One of the few exceptions is the recent study by Jemmott et al.

As a result, as pointed out by the authors, this successful version of abstinence education would not have met the criteria for federal abstinence-only funding [30]. While promoting an alternative persuasive essay on healthy eating more effective form of abstinence education, ken ruettgers dissertation results also support Kirby's sap scm case studies [8] and the data in the present study that comprehensive sex education that includes an abstinence delay component level 1is the most effective form of sex education, especially when using teen pregnancy rates as a measurable outcome.

Despite the data showing that abstract teenage pregnancy research paper education is ineffective, it may be argued that the prescribed form of sex education represents the underlying social values of families and communities in each state, and changing to a more comprehensive sex education curriculum will meet with strong opposition. However, there is strong public abstract teenage pregnancy research paper for comprehensive sex education [32]. In addition to the federal and state funds spent on abstinence-only level 3 education, jackson turner frontier thesis summary are other costs associated with the outcomes abstract teenage pregnancy research paper failed sex education and family planning.

When deciding state policies on sex education, State legislators should consider abstract teenage pregnancy research paper additional costs.