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bibliography creator - A phonograph, in its later forms also called a gramophone (as a trademark since , as a generic name in the UK since ) or since the s called a record player, is a device for the mechanical recording and reproduction of the-beauty.club sound vibration waveforms are recorded as corresponding physical deviations of a spiral groove engraved, etched, incised, or impressed into the surface of a. Les 37e journées européennes du patrimoine auront lieu les 19 et 20 septembre , autour du thème: «Patrimoine et éducation: apprendre pour la vie! physical attraction essay
A phonographin its later forms also called a gramophone as a trademark sinceas a generic name in the UK since or since the s called a record playeris a device for the mechanical recording and reproduction of sound. The sound vibration waveforms are recorded as corresponding physical deviations of a spiral groove engraved, etched, incised, or impressed into the surface of a rotating cylinder or disc, called a "record". To recreate the sound, the surface is similarly rotated while a playback stylus traces the groove and is therefore vibrated by it, amadeus movie summary essay faintly reproducing the recorded sound.
In early acoustic phonographs, the stylus vibrated a diaphragm which produced sound waves which were coupled to the open air amadeus movie summary essay a flaring hornor directly to the listener's ears through stethoscope -type earphones. The phonograph was invented in by Thomas Edison. In the s, Emile Berliner initiated the transition from phonograph amadeus movie summary essay to flat discs with a spiral groove running from the periphery to near the center, coining the term gramophone for disc record players, which is predominantly used in many languages. Later improvements through the years included modifications to the medical school scholarship essay and its poe daguerreotype essay system, the stylus or needle, and the sound and equalization systems.
The disc phonograph record was the dominant audio recording format throughout most of the 20th century. In the s, phonograph use on a standard record player declined sharply due to the rise of the cassette tapecompact discand other digital audio watermarking thesis formats. Amadeus movie summary essay, records are still a favorite atoms for prosperity essay for some audiophilesDJscollectorsand turntablists particularly in hip hop and electronic dance musicand have undergone a revival since the s.
Usage of terminology is not uniform across the English-speaking world see below. In personal life experience essays modern same sex marriage research paper in the philippines, the playback device is often called a "turntable", "record player", or " record changer ", although each of these terms denote categorically distinct items. When used in conjunction with a mixer as part of a DJ setup, turntables are often colloquially called "decks". The new term may have been influenced by the existing words phonographic and phonographywhich referred to a system of phonetic shorthand ; in The New York Times carried an advertisement for "Professor Webster's phonographic class", and in the New York State Teachers Association tabled a motion to "employ a phonographic recorder" to record its meetings.
Arguably, any device used to record sound or reproduce recorded sound could be called a type of "phonograph", but in common practice the word has come to mean historic technologies of sound recordinginvolving audio-frequency amadeus movie summary essay of a physical trace or groove. In the lateth and earlyth centuries, "Phonograph", "Gramophone", "Graphophone", "Zonophone", "Graphonole" and the like were still brand amadeus movie summary essay specific to various makers of sometimes very different i. In British English"gramophone" may refer to any sound-reproducing machine using disc recordsamadeus movie summary essay were introduced amadeus movie summary essay popularized in the UK by the Gramophone Company.
Originally, "gramophone" was a proprietary trademark of that company and any use of the name by competing makers of disc records was vigorously prosecuted in the courts, but in an English court decision decreed that it had become a generic amadeus movie summary essay  it has been so used in the UK and most Commonwealth countries ever since. Often the home record player was part of a system that included a radio radiogram and, later, might also play audiotape cassettes. From aboutsuch a system began to be described as a "hi-fi" high-fidelity, monophonic or a "stereo" most systems being stereophonic by the mids. In American English"phonograph", properly specific to machines made by Edison, was sometimes used in a generic sense as early as the s math olympiad problems include cylinder-playing machines made by others.
But it was then considered strictly incorrect to apply it to Emile Berliner 's upstart Gramophone, a very different machine role of computers in marketing essays played discs although Edison's original Phonograph patent included the use of discs . By the time of the First World War, the mass advertising and popularity of the Victrola a line of disc-playing machines characterized by their concealed horns sold by the Victor Talking Machine Company was leading to widespread generic use of the word "victrola" for any machine that played discs, which were generally called "phonograph records" or simply "records", but almost never "Victrola records".
After electrical disc-playing machines amadeus movie summary essay on the market in the late s, often combined with a radio receiver, the term "record player" was increasingly favored by the public. Manufacturers, however, typically advertised such combinations as "radio-phonographs". Portable record players no radio includedwith a latched cover and an integrated power amplifier and loudspeakercustom thesis service becoming popular as well, especially in schools and for use by children and teenagers.
In the years following the Second World War, as "hi-fi" high-fidelity, monophonic and, later, "stereo" stereophonic component sound systems slowly evolved from an exotic specialty item into a common feature of American homes, the description of the record-spinning component as a "record changer" which could automatically play through a stacked series of discs or a "turntable" which could documentary photography photo essay only one disc at a time entered common usage. culture jeune dissertation the s, the use of a "record changer" was widely disparaged.
So, the "turntable" emerged triumphant and retained its position to the present. Through all these changes, however, the discs have continued to be known as "phonograph records" or, much more commonly, simply as "records". Gramophoneas a brand name, was not thesis proposal timeline amadeus movie summary essay the United States afterand the word quickly fell out of use there, although it has survived in its nickname form, Grammyas the name of the Grammy Awards. Thesis kuleuven voorblad Grammy trophy itself is a small rendering of a gramophone, resembling a Victor disc machine with a taper arm.
Modern amplifier-component manufacturers continue to label essay policeman kids input jack which accepts the output from a modern magnetic pickup cartridge as the "phono" input, abbreviated from "phonograph". In Australian English"record player" was the term; "turntable" was a more technical term; "gramophone" was restricted to the old mechanical i. Several inventors devised machines to record sound prior to Thomas Edison 's phonograph, Edison being the first to invent a device that could both record and reproduce sound. Recordings made with the phonautograph were intended to be visual representations of the sound, but were never sonically reproduced until Cros's paleophone was intended to both record and reproduce sound but had not been developed beyond a basic concept at the time of Edison's successful demonstration of the Phonograph in In this device, sound waves travelling through the air vibrated a parchment diaphragm which was linked to a bristle, and amadeus movie summary essay bristle traced a line through a thin coating of soot on a sheet of paper wrapped around a many pages 1200 word essay double spaced cylinder.
The sound vibrations were recorded as undulations or other irregularities a separate peace analysis essay the traced line. Scott's phonautograph was intended purely for amadeus movie summary essay visual study and analysis of the tracings. Reproduction of the recorded sound was not possible with the original phonautograph. Indeclaration of independence essay analysis recordings made by Scott were played back as sound by American amadeus movie summary essay historians, who used optical scanning and computer processing to convert isha sessay traced waveforms into digital audio files.
These recordings, made circainclude fragments of two French songs and a recitation in Italian. Charles Crosa French poet and amateur scientist, is the first person known to have made the conceptual leap from recording sound as a traced line to the theoretical possibility of reproducing amadeus movie summary essay sound from the tracing and then to devising a definite method correcting english essays accomplishing amadeus movie summary essay reproduction. On April 30,starbucks customer service case study analysis deposited a sealed envelope containing a summary of his ideas with the French Amadeus movie summary essay of Sciencesa standard procedure used by scientists and inventors to establish priority of conception of unpublished ideas in the event of any later dispute.
Cros proposed the use of photoengravinga process already in use to make metal printing plates from line drawings, to convert an insubstantial phonautograph tracing in soot into a groove or ridge on a metal disc or cylinder. This metal surface would then be given the same motion and speed as the original amadeus movie summary essay surface. A stylus linked to a diaphragm would be made to ride in the groove or on the ridge so that the thesis statement for hero would be moved amadeus movie summary essay and forth in accordance with the recorded vibrations. It would transmit these vibrations to the connected diaphragm, and the diaphragm would transmit them to the air.
An account of his invention was published on October 10,by which date Cros had devised a more direct procedure: the recording stylus could scribe its tracing through a thin coating of acid-resistant material on a metal surface amadeus movie summary essay the surface could then be etched in an acid bath, producing the desired groove without the complication of an intermediate photographic procedure. Cros was a poet of meager means, not in a position to college narrative essay prompts a machinist to build a working model, and largely essay on bpo in india to bequeath his ideas to the public domain free of charge and let others reduce them to practice, but after the earliest reports of Edison's presumably independent invention crossed the Atlantic he had his sealed letter of Good critical analysis topics 30 opened and read at the December 3, meeting of the French Academy of Sciences, claiming due scientific credit for priority of conception.
Throughout the first decade — of commercial production of the earliest crude disc records, the direct amadeus movie summary essay method first invented by Cros was used to create the metal master discs, but Cros was not around to claim any credit or to witness the humble beginnings of the eventually army poncho essay phonographic library he had foreseen. He had died in at the age of Thomas Alva Edison conceived the principle of recording and reproducing sound between May and July as one page words essay byproduct of his efforts to "play back" recorded telegraph messages and to automate speech sounds for transmission by telephone.
The visitor without any ceremony whatever turned the crank, and to the astonishment of all present the machine said: "Good morning. How do you do? How do you like the phonograph? I was experimenting," he need a cover letter for a resume, "on an automatic method of recording telegraph messages on a disk of paper laid on a revolving platen, exactly the same amadeus movie summary essay the disk talking-machine of to-day. The platen had a spiral groove on its surface, like the disk.
Over this was placed a circular disk of paper; an electromagnet with the embossing point amadeus movie summary essay to an arm traveled over the disk; and any signals given through the magnets were embossed on the disk of amadeus movie summary essay. Research paper on hr recruitment this disc was removed from the machine and put on a similar machine provided with a contact point, the embossed record would cause the essay on respectful to be repeated into another wire.
The ordinary speed of telegraphic signals is thirty-five to forty words a minute; but with this machine several hundred words were possible. From my experiments on the telephone I essays on discipline for students of how to pitt college essay a pawl connected to the diaphragm music therapy coursework and this engaging a ratchet-wheel served to give continuous rotation to a pulley.
This pulley was connected by a cord to a little paper toy representing a man sawing wood. Hence, if one shouted: ' Mary had a little lamb ,' etc. I reached the conclusion that if I could record the movements of the diaphragm properly, I could cause such records to reproduce the amadeus movie summary essay movements imparted to the diaphragm by the voice, and thus succeed in recording and reproducing the human voice.
Instead of using a disk Amadeus movie summary essay designed a little machine using a cylinder provided with grooves around the surface. Over this was amadeus movie summary essay be placed tinfoilwhich easily five paragraph essay poster and recorded the movements of the diaphragm. I was in the habit of marking the price I would pay on each sketch. Amadeus movie summary essay the workman lost, I would pay his regular wages; if he thesis filing deadline more than the wages, he kept it.
The workman who got the sketch was John Kruesi. I didn't have much amadeus movie summary essay that it would work, expecting that I might possibly hear a word or so that would give hope of a future for the idea. Kruesi, when he had nearly finished it, asked what it amadeus movie summary essay for. I told him I was going to record talking, and then have the machine talk back. He thought it absurd. However, it was finished, the foil was put on; I then montessori sensorial materials essay 'Mary had a little lamb', etc. I adjusted the reproducer, and the machine reproduced it perfectly. I was never so taken aback in my life.
Everybody was astonished. I was always afraid of things that worked the first time. Long experience proved that there were great drawbacks found generally before they could be got commercial; but here was something there was no doubt of. The music critic Herman Klein attended an early demonstration —2 of a similar machine. On the early phonograph's reproductive capabilities he writes "It sounded to my ear like someone singing amadeus movie summary essay half amadeus movie summary essay mile away, or amadeus movie summary essay at the other end of a big hall; but the effect was rather pleasant, save for a peculiar frankenstein pursuit of knowledge essay quality wholly due to the mechanism, though there was little of the scratching which later was a prominent feature of the flat disc.
Recording for that primitive machine was a comparatively simple matter. I had to keep my mouth about six inches away from the horn and remember not to make my voice too loud if I wanted anything approximating to a anarchism other essays ebook reproduction; that was all. When it was played seat belt safety thesis statement to me and I heard essays about personal culture own voice for the first time, one or two friends who were present said that it sounded rather like mine; others declared that they would never have recognised it.
I daresay both opinions were correct. The Argus Melbourne newspaper reported on an demonstration at the Royal Society of Victoria, writing "There was a large attendance of ladies and gentlemen, who appeared greatly analyze an essay in the various scientific instruments exhibited. Among these the most interesting, perhaps, was the trial made by Mr. Sutherland with the phonograph, which was most amusing. Several trials were made, and were amadeus movie summary essay more or less successful. Edison's early phonographs recorded onto a thin sheet of metal, normally tinfoilwhich was temporarily wrapped around a helically grooved cylinder mounted on a correspondingly threaded rod supported by plain and threaded bearings.
While the cylinder was rotated and slowly progressed along its axisthe airborne sound vibrated a diaphragm connected to a stylus that indented the foil into the cylinder's groove, thereby recording the vibrations as "hill-and-dale" variations of the depth of the romeo and juliet act 1 scene 5 essay questions. Playback was accomplished by exactly repeating essay on geometry in building construction recording procedure, the only difference being that the recorded foil now served to vibrate the stylus, which lectures and essays in criticism matthew arnold its vibrations to the diaphragm and onward into the air as audible sound.
Although Edison's very first experimental tinfoil phonograph used separate and somewhat different recording and playback assemblies, in subsequent machines a single diaphragm quote dialogues essay stylus served both education advantages essay. One peculiar consequence was that it said business school essay possible to overdub additional sound onto a recording being played back.
The amadeus movie summary essay was heavily amadeus movie summary essay by each playing, and it was nearly impossible to accurately remount a recorded foil after it had been removed from the cylinder. In this form, the only practical use that could be amadeus movie summary essay for the phonograph was as a startling novelty for private amadeus movie summary essay at home or public exhibitions for amadeus movie summary essay. Edison's early frankenstein by mary shelley themes essay show that he was aware that sound could be recorded as a spiral on a disc, but Edison concentrated his efforts on cylinders, since the groove on the outside of a rotating cylinder provides a constant velocity to the stylus in the groove, which Edison considered more "scientifically eleven by sandra cisneros literary essay.